Animals and Their Environment

Standard Animal Housing

Federal regulations and guidelines (Animal Welfare Act; Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals; Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching) provide guidelines for the amount of space required for each animal to have normal activity and growth. These requirements are based on the size and weight of the animals. CMP adheres to all federal regulations and guidelines and will notify investigators if the potential for exceeding space requirements occurs.

Mouse1, 2

Caging

Large or small hanging polycarbonate, microisolator,* or ventilated              cage systems

Bedding

Hardwood chips

Diet

Standardized Laboratory Rodent Diet

Water

Water bottles only

Cage Changeout

Standard: twice per week. Ventilated cages will be changed less
frequently (once per week).

Rat1, 2

Caging

Hanging polycarbonate or microisolator cage system*

Bedding

Hardwood chips

Diet

Standardized Laboratory Rodent Diet

Water

Water bottles or Hydropac pouch

Cage Changeout

Standard: twice per week. Ventilated cages will be changed less
frequently (once per week).

Hamster1, 2

Caging

Hanging polycarbonate or microisolator cage system*

Bedding

Hardwood chips

Diet

Standardized Laboratory Rodent Diet

Water

Water bottles only

Cage Changeout

Standard: twice per week

Gerbil1, 2

Caging

Large or small hanging polycarbonate, microisolator,* or ventilated cage systems

Bedding

Hardwood chips

Diet

Standardized Laboratory Rodent Diet

Water

Water bottles only

Cage Changeout

Standard: once per week.

Rabbit1, 2

Caging

Large, medium or small stainless steel rabbit cages with grid floors or Large molded plastic cages

Bedding

No contact bedding

Diet

Standardized Hi-Fiber Laboratory Rabbit Diet

Water

Water bottles or automated watering system (AWS)

Cage Changeout

Cages changed weekly, pans changed three times per week


Guinea Pig1, 2

Caging

Hanging polycarbonate with grid floor or microisolator cage system*
Stainless steel cages with grid floor - Biohazard Only

Bedding

Hardwood chips

Diet

Standardized Laboratory Guinea Pig Diet

Water

Water bottles

Cage Changeout

Standard: three times per week

Chicken1, 2

Caging

Stainless steel cages with grid floor, brooder cages available for chicks

Bedding

Non-contact bedding

Diet

Standardized Laboratory Poultry Diet

Water

Automated watering system (AWS)/Poultry waters

Cage Sanitation

Three to seven times per week (depending on age/size of birds)

Other Caging

Chickens may also be housed in runs with concrete flooring and no bedding

Dog2

Caging

Runs (4'x8'), sealed floor surface with resting board

Bedding

Resting boards provided

Diet

Hill's Science Diet

Water

Automated watering system (AWS)/Water bowls when necessary

Cage Sanitation

Sanitized twice a week, cleaned twice daily

Cat2

Caging

Runs (8'x 8') sealed floor surface with multi-level resting surfaces
Open room housing with multi-level resting surfaces                            
Cages with resting surfaces are available for individual housing

Bedding

None

Diet

Hill's Science Diet

Water

Water bowls

Cage Sanitation

Run/room/cage sanitized once every other week, litter pans cleaned daily

Pig2

Caging

Runs (4'x 8') sealed floor surface

Bedding

None

Diet

Standardized pig ration

Water

Automated watering system (AWS)/Water tubs

Cage Sanitation

Sanitized twice a week, cleaned twice daily

1 Light cycles in all animal rooms at the CMP Laboratory Animal Resources and Research (LARR) facility are maintained by a computerized timer system. There are six separate light cycles that can be requested by research personnel for their animal studies.

2 Sanitation of all animal housing equipment is accomplished with chemical disinfectants and/or cage-washing equipment capable of reaching sanitizing water temperatures. All animal rooms are mopped or washed down after husbandry functions using a chemical disinfectant. Dog and cat runs are chemically or steam sanitized.

* The Microisolator System consists of a polycarbonate cage with a stainless steel grid top. The cage is covered with a filtered polycarbonate lid, and water is provided by bottle. Cage height will vary with species.

Number of Animals Per Cage

Per diem rates are calculated, in part, on how frequently cage changes occur. The population of animals housed in each cage dictates how frequently the cage must be changed to insure sanitation for the animals. Listed below are the maximum number of animals per cage in the current CMP standard caging. CMP has calculated per diem rates from these numbers. Alterations in these numbers require approval from the CMP veterinary staff and adjustment in per diem rates.

Species

Type Cage

Floor Area (sq in.)

Length (in.)

Width (in.)

Height (in.)

# Animals/cage

Mouse

Standard

144.5

17

8.5

6

<9 Adults A

Mini/HD

85.75

12.25

7

5

<5 Adults A

Shoebox

83.38

7.25

11.5

5

<5 Adults A

HD Vent (Innovive Disposable)

81.0

14.7

9.2

5.5

<5 Adults A

HD Vent (ACS)

75

12.5

11.0 (F)

5.06

<5 Adults A

HD Vent (Tecniplast – Isocage)

78.12

15.3

8.465

7.48

<5 Adults A

HD Vent (Tecniplast greenline)

77.66

15.40

7.83

6.3

<5 Adults A

HD Vent

82

12.5

6.5

5.5

<5 Adults A

Rats

Standard

144.5

17

8.5

8

<4 Adults A,B

Large

210

20

10.5

8

<7Adults A,B

HD Vent (ACS)

144.0

12.8

18.5

8.1

<4 Adults A,B

HD Vent (Tecniplast greenline)

140.12

15.55

13.63

8.39

<4 Adults A

Hamster

Standard

144.5

17

8.5

8

<2 Adults A

Gerbil

Standard

144.5

17

8.5

8

<4 Adults C

Guinea Pig

Standard

144.5

17

8.5

8

1 Adult B

Large

210

20

10.5

8

2 Adults B

HD Vent (ACS)

144.0

12.8

18.5

8.1

1 Adult B

Rabbit

Small

438

24

18.24

14.75

1 Adult B

Medium

576

24

24

14.75

1 Adult >8.5lbs

Large PP/SS

742/864

26.5/24

28/36

17.5/16

1 Adult >11.5lbs

Chickens

Small Brooder

546

39

14

15

1-10/ cage B

Large Brooder

720

30

24

15

1-10/ cage B

Small Single

432

24

18

14

1 Adult B

Large Single

576

18

24

14

1 Adult B

Cat

Std Run

9062

98.5

96

96

1-6 Adults D

Dog

Std Run

4531

98.5

46

96

1-2 Adults

Pig

Std Run

4531

98.5

46

96

1-4 Adults D

A Or one female with pre-weaning age litter. Animals >28 days of age are counted as adults.

B Larger animals require more space to meet the regulatory requirements.

C Or one pair with pre-weaning age litter. Animals >28 days of age are counted as adults.

D Group housed when possible. Numbers per pen/cage is dependent on the age/size of animals. Individual housing available upon request.

HD - high density; PP - polypropylene; SS - stainless steel

Light Cycles

One of the environmental factors controlled by CMP is the light/dark cycle of the animal environment. It is very important to maintain these cycles to prevent disruption in the animal's physiological and endocrine states. Even minor alterations in the cycle (e.g., flicking on the light after the dark cycle has begun or power disruptions) have been shown to have dramatic effects on the animal's status. The CMP Facility Maintenance Coordinator maintains a record of power disruptions that can alter animal room light/dark cycles. The information is available to investigators upon request.

Investigators and their staff are asked NOT to manually turn lights on or off, use flashlights, or otherwise alter the light/dark cycle of the animal rooms. This is especially important if your animals are being housed in a room with another investigator's animals. Although you may deem this not to be a problem with your animals, changes may have major impacts on another investigator's work. Please recognize that lights in rooms adjacent to animal rooms can have an impact as well. We ask that you plan your work day and animal activities to correlate with the set light/dark cycles of the animal rooms.

Several light cycles have been established to accommodate the bulk of investigator needs. Investigators can choose which light cycle works best for their project needs. If a variation from these prescribed light/dark cycles is needed, the investigator should contact the area supervisor. Some needs may be accommodated, but requests will be handled on a first come, first served basis.

The CMP-LARR facility has a selection of six light/dark cycles for investigators to choose from. For a list of light cycles, contact CMP.

The CMP Support Facility also has automated light cycles. These cycles are set according to the project needs. Other facilities for which CMP provides contract animal care light cycles are set according to project demands.

Required Cover Clothing in Animal Rooms

Clean lab coats (or CMP coveralls), shoe covers and a hair bonnet must be worn in CMP LARR facility animal hallways/ housing rooms/buildings and animal procedure rooms by ALL personnel. Washing hands and wearing gloves is strongly encouraged. This is an important factor in keeping animals free from exposure to disease and maintaining their SPF status. Clean lab coats, shoe covers and hair bonnets protect the animals from contaminants you may be carrying on your person or clothing. These contaminants may be items like animal hair, bacteria, viruses, dander, etc., that can be inadvertently and unknowingly picked up from cars, offices, labs, or homes and carried into animal areas. Lab coats, shoe covers and hair bonnets also provide protection of personal attire from exposure to allergens that would later be carried into other work areas. Furthermore, it is also very important to avoid bringing contaminants from the animal facility to your home.

CMP provides clean lab coats / coveralls and hair bonnets for use in the CMP LARR facility (Room 174) and CMP Support (Office Building) facilities. Once tasks have been completed, the lab coats should be placed in the "dirty laundry" receptacles placed at investigator exits (CMP LARR) and in specified locations (CMP Support).

Additional cover clothing and special procedures for entry / exit of animal housing rooms / procedure rooms may be required. In these situations, specific instructions will be posted to direct all personnel with regard to required cover clothing and procedures.

Working in Animal Rooms/Use of Procedure Rooms

Like humans, animals are sensitive to sight, sounds, and smells. When working with and around the animals, persons should work quietly and methodically, avoiding loud noises or abrupt movements that may frighten or startle the animals. Animals are also especially sensitive to smells such as colognes containing pheromones (released when an animal is excited, distressed, or frightened) or blood. Although these smells are not perceived by humans, they are recognized by animals in the area or room.

To prevent unnecessary stimulation of animals in their home environment, animal procedures (e.g., injections, blood collections) should be performed in an animal procedure room and NOT in the animal housing room. Such stimulation can result in catecholamine release and physiological changes in the animal that will impact research results.

CMP LARR procedure rooms are available for investigative use and should be reserved through the CMP supervisory staff that oversees the area. Reserving a procedure room will ensure that each investigative group has adequate uninterrupted access for their needs.